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News: Discussion of psychoactive cacti and succulents

Author Topic: ORGANISMS FROM WHICH MESCALINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED  (Read 2519 times)

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Offline roach

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ORGANISMS FROM WHICH MESCALINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED
« on: January 25, 2015, 07:25:44 PM »
Taken from  http://www.napralert.org/napralertreport_mescalineoccurrences.pdf

The format is off when I try to copy and paste the list.

Offline Chief BigTittyFlapFlaps

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Re: ORGANISMS FROM WHICH MESCALINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED
« Reply #1 on: January 26, 2015, 12:06:36 AM »
jeez louise

Offline Inyan

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Re: ORGANISMS FROM WHICH MESCALINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED
« Reply #2 on: January 27, 2015, 04:28:58 PM »
Nice research. For what its worth, I've also heard tell that Lophophora diffusa contains mescaline as well although a very small amount. As for Opuntia ficus-indica, that cacti is used for making Nopales... cut up slices of pad cooked in eggs, also as a salsa ingredient, and tastes great with a bit of lemon juice after it has soaked for a few hours. The fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica comes in many colors from orange, yellow, red, purple, and even green with the flesh also taking many different colors. The green variety of tuna (fruit from Opuntia) generally has a white flesh. What interests me most is that the concentration of alkaloids does vary from cacti to cacti even with something as well known as Lophophora williamsii. The sad part is that if one does not mark from which cacti a specimen is taken or one kills the cacti in its entirety if an especially potent specimen does come along its genetics may be lost. If one is selecting for increased alkaloids one would need to keep voucher specimens alive of each specimen. Breeding the best specimens together may eventually create a super strain or cultivar. With that said, I'm not sure any work is being done in this area as Lophophora williamsii is particularly powerful as it is. With one button being enough for many people when it is field grown and collected and of sufficient size. I've done a little bit of research into this as a member of the NAC and as a genuine cacti enthusiast it is interesting to note that different populations of Lophophora williamsii are genetically different to the extent that some are not even self-pollinating meaning that they require two different cacti two produce seed. While most if not all of the Lophophora grown in the USA in its native habitat are self-fertile this also equates to less genetic diversity in those populations. To ensure maximum seed set, different parents are always suggested, but how often do you see a genetic bottleneck in collections where only the self-fertile variety of Lophophora williamsii are found in a persons collection? Astrophytum asterias has been shown to cross with Lophophora williamsii as has many other cacti. The fact that they don't appear to do this in the wild leads one to suggest that either advanced techniques are needed or that the flowers do not bloom at the same time or manage to pollinate them before the more compatible pollen has reached the stigma of said cacti. Whether one is breeding for increased alkaloid concentration, genetic diversity, a specific characteristic, etc. one has to have goals and one has to acquire the needed cacti to begin work with an ever present mindset not to lose track of what crosses were made and most importantly not to lose the specimens used in the initial crosses. Pollen storage, shipping, etc. is also an issue that must be overcome for those seriously interested in hybridizing or breeding any cacti for a particular trait and it is something that can easily be done as pollen of most species will stay viable for at least a year in the freezer if properly dried for an hour or two prior to freezing. The colder the freezer the longer the longevity of the pollen provided moisture is kept out. I know, I tend to ramble on. What interests me most about hybridizing or breeding for any trait is the acquisition of new traits or phenotypes simply from the combination of different genotypes from the same species collected over different regions that may arise. Never mind the total addition of new or different traits that may be introduced when one breeds an unrelated genus into the mix such as Lophophora williamsii  x Astrophytum asterias kikko variegate red flowered form. Breeding back for each of the desired traits may take more than three generations to achieve what one is after, but these are things that make these enterprises interesting. Lophophora jourdaniana is another interesting specimen in that it is also thought to be a nursery produced hybrid and as such I am sure there are some interesting variations to look at there as well with some interesting results if one has the time and the inclination to explore those genetic variables. My personal thoughts on this matter are that as some Lophophora williamsii are self-fertile and others are not... would it not be advisable to have both specimens for potential crosses and hybrids for increased genetic diversity as well as hybrid vigor... never mind the possibility of some crosses may be more possible with one regional variety than another. Sometimes bridge species may need to be used to create a hybrid. I have heard such is the case sometimes with crosses like Astrobergia.
For those that graft...
Every areole is a cactus waiting to be born

Offline ChimoraRanger

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Re: ORGANISMS FROM WHICH MESCALINE HAS BEEN ISOLATED
« Reply #3 on: June 23, 2015, 11:38:44 AM »
I see Black Bush down by the border and it's a strange one: Alkaloids from all over the spectrum.

Quote
Acacia rigidula Benth., blackbrush, is a shrub found growing on rocky ridges in west and southwest Texas and northern Mexico. Consumption of blackbrush and a related species guajillo, Acacia berlandieri Benth., has been associated with a locomotor ataxia known as limber leg. In an effort to identify the mechanism of this toxicity, blackbrush was subjected to rigorous chemical analysis. In addition to the four previously detected amines, N-methyl-β-phenethylamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, and hordenine, 40 other alkaloids and amines were isolated and identified by GC-MS. These alkaloids and amines included nicotine, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, mescaline, several tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids, and four amphetamines. A significant increase in the number and relative quantities of these compounds was observed in late season foliage.